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Each of the following health articles was authored by one of our expert orthopedic doctors at Orthopedic Associates. Please use the Learn More button to read the article in full.

  • Missouri Baptist Medical Center Physicians,

    Today U.S. News and World Reportreleased its ranking of top hospitals. We are excited to share that MoBap was ranked #2 in the St. Louis Metro Area (only behind our sister hospital BJH) and #3 in Missouri (up one spot from last year).

  • Rehabilitating from a torn meniscus starts as soon as you’re in the recovery room. The first three to seven days following meniscus surgery are about protecting the affected region from any damage or infection. Many orthopedic specialists will have you on your feet and walking within a day or...

  • Approximately 19.5% of all U.S. adults say they suffer from knee pain. (The American Academy of Pain Medicine) If you’re reading this, we’re guessing you’re part of the 63 million Americans who experience knee pain on a consistent basis. It affects your work, your everyday movement, and even...

  • Summer is a great time of year to stretch your legs, pump the tires, and wheel your way down a biking trail. Whether you’re exploring the Meramec or gliding down the Katy Trail, there are plenty of sights and sounds to see on a bike seat this summer.

  • At the end of a long day of walking around a city while on vacation, you might have said that your “dogs are barking.” It’s common to feel foot pain if you’re not used to walking very far and then decide to go for a long hike. However, foot pain can be caused by a variety of things, and they don...

  • Your hand is a complex and unique part of your body, composed of delicate tissues and an intricate network of bones, muscles, vessels, and nerves. The ability to generate great force for activities like rock climbing while also providing the fine dexterity to play a musical instrument make the...

  • Your hand is a complex and unique part of your body, composed of delicate tissues and an intricate network of bones, muscles, vessels, and nerves. The ability to generate great force for activities like rock climbing while also providing the fine dexterity to play a musical instrument make the...

  • If you have an infected bone, your doctor may treat it with medicated beads. These are placed into the bone to send medicine directly into the infection. And that's helpful, because your bone may not have good blood flow. Lack of blood flow to the bone can keep antibiotics taken by mouth or by...

  • An accessory navicular is an extra bone, joined to the navicular by fibrous tissue or cartilage, that can develop in certain people. This bone can cause pain, and may be susceptible to injury.

  • The Achilles tendons are thick and powerful bands of fibrous tissue. They connect your calf muscles to your heel bones. The tendons help you walk, run and jump. And that means they are under a lot of stress, making injuries to the Achilles tendons common.

  • This procedure is designed to treat problems with the Achilles tendon, such as chronic tendonitis or a short or contracted Achilles tendon. A series of cuts is created in the tendon to allow it to stretch and lengthen.

  • This procedure replaces a damaged or torn anterior cruciate ligament, commonly called the ACL, with a tendon graft held in place by Arthrex RetroScrews. The surgeon uses a small camera called an arthroscope to visualize the inside of the knee during the procedure.

  • This procedure repairs your knee after a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (commonly called the "ACL"). This ligament is in the center of the knee. It helps anchor the femur to the tibia. This surgery can allow you to regain normal knee function.

  • This procedure replaces a damaged or torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with a portion of hamstring tendon from the patient's leg. The ACL connects the front top of the tibia (lower leg bone) to the rear bottom of the femur (thigh bone). The hamstring tendons attach the hamstring muscles to...

  • This procedure replaces a damaged or torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with part of a hamstring tendon (called an autograft) from the patient's leg.

  • This condition, also called AC joint arthrosis, is a degeneration of the joint at the top of the shoulder where the acromion meets the clavicle.

  • This surgery repairs a severe separation injury of the AC joint in your shoulder. This is where your clavicle meets your scapula. With a severe separation injury, the ligaments that connect these bones are torn. The clavicle shifts out of position.

  • This is a collapse of your foot's arch. It happens over time, usually in just one foot but sometimes in both. As your arch collapses, the bones of your foot may gradually shift out of alignment. This can cause pain and other problems.

  • ALIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

  • ALIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

  • ALIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

  • You might not have heard of an osteophyte, but you might know them by their common name—bone spurs. These small, bony projections form along edges of bones, often in the places where two bones meet, like the joints of your shoulders, hips, hands, knees and feet. It is also possible to have bone...

  • Long recovery times, risk of infection and the pain associated with large incisions have been mitigated by improvements to modern surgical methods. One such advancement is arthroscopy (pronounced “ahr-THROS-kuh-pee”), which allows for a safer, less invasive option for repairing damaged joints...

  • The hip joint is one of the largest weight-bearing joints in the body. This ball-and-socket joint allows the leg to move and rotate while keeping the body stable and balanced. Let's take a closer look at the main parts of the hip joint's anatomy.

  • Revision hip is performed to replace worn artificial hip parts and damaged bone with new metal, plastic or ceramic components. Several revision options are available, chosen based on the condition of the patient's bones. This animation will show multiple revision techniques.

  • The shoulder is a complex structure made of three separate joints. They work together to give the shoulder a tremendous range of motion. Let's take a closer look at the main parts of the shoulder's anatomy.

  • The spinal column is the body's main support structure. Its thirty-three bones, called vertebrae, are divided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal.

  • Conscious sedation is a type of anesthesia that makes the patient feel very relaxed. It reduces painful sensations and the awareness of pain. It is not intended to put the patient to sleep, and will wear off quickly after a procedure. Conscious sedation is commonly used for simple procedures...

  • Epidural anesthesia is a numbing medication injected through a catheter placed in the epidural space of the spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure.

  • General anesthesia makes a person unconscious. People call this “put under” or “put to sleep.” But it isn’t the same as regular sleep. A person given general anesthesia cannot feel pain. And, the person won’t remember what happens during a medical procedure.

  • Local anesthesia makes a part of the body numb to prevent a patient from feeling pain during a medical procedure. Local anesthesia is commonly used for many minor outpatient surgeries.

  • This numbing medication is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid through a fine needle placed near the nerve roots of the lower spine. It can be used to numb the abdomen, groin, legs and feet. It does not put the patient to sleep, but blocks painful sensations during or after a medical procedure...

  • Monitored anesthesia care is a type of anesthesia that makes the patient feel very relaxed. It reduces painful sensations and the awareness of pain. It is not intended to put the patient to sleep, and will wear off quickly after a procedure. Monitored anesthesia care is commonly used for simple...

  • Anesthesia is the use of medications to block the pain of a medical procedure. The medications that block this pain are called anesthetics. Different forms of anesthesia are used to prepare patients for different types of procedures.

  • Regional anesthesia makes an area of the body numb to prevent the patient from feeling pain during or after a medical procedure. It can completely block sensation to a large area of the body. Regional anesthesia does not put a patient to sleep, but it is commonly used along with sedation. It may...

  • A bite from an animal can be very dangerous. Besides obvious injuries like tissue punctures and tears, bites can also introduce germs. Whether from a wild animal or from a pet, an animal bite - even one that seems minor - can cause a serious infection.

  • This surgical procedure is used to correct a fracture of the fibula or tibia in the ankle joint. The procedure involves attachment of a fixation plate made of stainless steel or titanium to the fibula and use of screws or fixation plate on the tibia to stabilize the bones and allow healing.

  • This surgical procedure is performed to treat severe arthritis or injury of the ankle joint. During the procedure, the surgeon removes damaged bone and cartilage and fuses the joint. This stabilizes the ankle and relieves pain.

  • During this procedure, the surgeon removes diseased or damaged portions of the ankle. The surgeon implants an artificial ankle joint consisting of metal and plastic components. The new joint will help reduce pain and restore mobility to the ankle.

  • Ligaments are fibrous, elastic bands of tissue that connect and stabilize the bones. An ankle sprain is a common, painful injury that occurs when one or more of the ankle ligaments is stretched beyond the normal range of motion. Sprains can occur as a result of sudden twisting, turning or...

  • This surgery relieves pressure on the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. It involves the removal of bone and discs from your cervical spine, followed by a fusion.

  • This surgery removes a herniated or degenerative vertebral disc in your neck and replaces it with a bone graft. This can relieve painful pressure on spinal nerves.

  • This surgery removes a herniated or diseased disc and relieves neck and radiating arm pain caused by parts of the disc pressing on nerve roots.

  • The anterior cruciate ligament, commonly called the ACL, is a thick, elastic band of tissue that runs from the bottom of the femur to the top of the tibia. It helps stabilize the knee joint. The ACL can become stretched or torn when the knee is twisted or hyperextended. For reasons that are not...

  • This injury is a tearing of the ACL ligament in the knee joint. The ACL ligament is one of the bands of tissue that connects the femur to the tibia. An ACL tear can be painful. It can cause the knee to become unstable.

  • This minimally-invasive surgical procedure, performed through a tiny hole in the neck, removes the bulging portion of a herniated cervical disc. It is designed to relieve neck and radiating arm pain caused by herniated disc material pressing on nerve roots.

  • Direct anterior hip replacement is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that can be used to remove a hip joint that has been damaged by an injury, such as a pelvic or femoral head fracture, or a disease, such as osteoarthritis, and replace it with an artificial implant.

    Multiple...

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is performed to stimulate the growth of fibrocartilage in an injured joint. Fibrocartilage is a tough, dense, fibrous material that can fill in areas where smooth, glassy cartilage has become damaged or worn away. This procedure may be performed with general or...

  • This minimally-invasive surgery is used to relieve pain and loss of shoulder stability for patients with loose shoulder. A radiofrequency (RF) probe is inserted into the shoulder to stimulate the tissue capsule that surrounds the shoulder joint. This causes the tissue to contract, tightening the...

  • This minimally-invasive surgery is used to help relieve pain and loss of mobility in the shoulder from adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder). A radiofrequency (RF) probe is inserted into the shoulder. The probe uses RF waves to cut the tissue capsule that surrounds the shoulder joint, allowing...

  • This outpatient procedure is used to repair a small area of damaged cartilage in the knee. The damaged tissue is removed, allowing healthy cartilage to grow in its place. It is performed through small incisions on the sides of the knee with the aid of a small video camera called an arthroscope...

  • During this outpatient procedure, the surgeon examines the inside of the elbow joint with a camera called an arthroscope. The surgeon identifies and corrects problems with the bones, ligaments and tendons of the elbow.

  • This minimally-invasive surgical procedure is used to identify and correct problems in the hip joint, such as a torn labrum or damaged articular cartilage, that commonly result from femoral-acetabular impingement.

  • If you have a joint problem, your surgeon may want to try arthroscopy. This lets your surgeon see inside your joint with a small, thin camera called an "arthroscope." It can be used on any joint, but let's see it in the knee.

  • This procedure identifies and treats problems in your ankle. With it, the surgeon can access your ankle without creating a large incision.

  • This arthroscopic procedure uses a small, metal, cap-like implant to cover damaged or missing articular cartilage in the knee joint. The articular cartilage covers the surfaces of the bones in the joint, allowing them to glide smoothly against each other. The procedure can typically be performed...

  • This procedure uses a small, metal, cap-like implant to cover damaged or missing articular cartilage in the joint of the great toe, restoring mobility to the toe. Articular cartilage covers the surfaces of bones in the joint, allowing them to glide smoothly against each other. This procedure is...

  • (Caution: Investigational Device) A goal of this procedure is to relieve the pain caused by pinched nerves due to a damaged disc in the cervical spine. The diseased or damaged disc will be replaced with a specialized implant.

  • This procedure replaces a diseased or damaged spinal disc with a specialized implant designed to preserve motion in the neck. This procedure can relieve the pain of pinched nerves in the cervical spine.

  • This procedure, performed under regional or local anesthesia, replaces a diseased or damaged finger joint with an implant made of silicone rubber or hard metal, ceramic or pyrocarbon. This technique can be used to replace the middle joint of the finger (called the PIP joint) or the joint at the...

  • This outpatient procedure relieves pain and swelling in the elbow caused by bursitis, or inflammation of the bursa. The bursa is a fluid-filled sac between the skin and bones of the elbow.

  • This outpatient procedure relieves pain and swelling in the knee caused by bursitis, or inflammation of the bursa. The bursa is a fluid-filled sac between the skin and patella (commonly called the kneecap).

  • This surgical procedure replaces damaged cartilage in the knee joint with healthy cartilage cells. These cells are harvested from healthy portions of the knee and are grown in a lab for implantation. This procedure is usually performed in two stages, with two separate surgeries.

  • This is a weakening and collapse of the bone in the head of your femur. That's the ball that fits in the socket of your hip. As this bone gradually dies and breaks apart, you can develop painful arthritis in your hip.

  • This condition occurs when a bone's normal blood supply is disrupted. The affected bone cells die and the dead bone weakens. The bone may begin to fracture and collapse, leading to arthritis.

  • In this minimally-invasive procedure, performed under general anesthesia, portions of a diseased or damaged disc in the lumbar spine are removed and a device is implanted to secure one or more vertebrae to the sacrum. It is typically used to treat back pain caused by a degenerative disc between...

  • If you have a painful shoulder, you may have a torn labrum. That's a tear of the thick band of tissue around your shoulder socket. A torn labrum can be fixed with a procedure called a "Bankart repair."

  • This condition is a degeneration of cartilage in the joints at the base of the thumb, collectively called the basal joint. The main component of the basal joint is the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC), joint. This joint, which allows the thumb to pivot and swivel, can wear out even early in life.

  • Pain in the basal joint caused by arthritis makes it difficult for patients to grip and hold or twist objects between the thumb and fingers. This surgical procedure removes and rebuilds the basal joint.

  • Tendons are strong bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone. With this injury, one of the tendons anchoring your biceps muscle is torn. It may be torn partially or completely. Because the biceps is attached with two separate tendons, you may find that you can still use your biceps muscle even...

  • This is a problem with a tendon in your shoulder. Most often, it's the "long head of biceps" tendon. It travels from the front of your upper arm to the top of your shoulder socket. With this condition, the tendon becomes painfully inflamed or irritated.

  • This surgery repairs a biceps tendon in your shoulder. It fixes a tendon that is partially torn, or completely torn, from the bone.

  • Biologics is a relatively new class of drugs that has proven beneficial for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, along with a wide range of other diseases. Rather than being created through chemistry, biologic drugs are produced by biological processes.

  • This is a type of x-ray that measures your bone density. Your doctor may recommend it if you're at risk for osteoporosis (that's a weakening of your bones). This scan is a quick and easy way to check for signs of bone density loss.

  • This condition is a characteristic deformity of the finger in which the finger's middle joint, called the PIP joint, bends downward and the finger's end joint, called the DIP joint, hyperextends.

  • A boxer's fracture is a break of the metacarpal of the little finger. The metacarpals are the long bones in the hand that connect the fingers to the wrist. A boxer's fracture refers to a break at the end of the bone nearest the knuckle, which is called the metacarpal neck.

  • This deformity affects the joint at the base of the big toe. It is a bony bump beneath the skin on the inner side of the foot. A bunion starts small, but over time it can grow to become very large. Bunions are more common in women.

  • This procedure is used to correct a bunion, a deformity of the joint at the base of the big toe. During this procedure, portions of bone are removed and the bones of the foot and toe are aligned properly, eliminating the bump on the inner side of the foot.

  • This outpatient procedure is performed to correct a bunion, a deformity of the toe joint. During the procedure, the surgeon may remove excess bone and then shift the toe into proper alignment. This surgery is commonly performed with regional anesthesia.

  • This outpatient procedure is performed to correct a bunion, a deformity of the toe joint. This surgery is commonly performed with regional anesthesia.

  • This bony bump forms on the outer side of the foot at the base of the fifth toe. Like a traditional bunion, a bunionette can be sore and painful. The skin covering the bump can become red and irritated.

  • This surgical procedure is performed to correct a bunionette, a bony bump on the outer side of the foot at the base of the fifth toe. During this procedure, the surgeon realigns the head of the metatarsal and removes excess bone to eliminate the prominence and give the foot a more natural shape...

  • This surgical procedure is performed to correct a bunionette, a bony bump on the outer side of the foot at the base of the fifth toe. The procedure removes this excess bone growth, eliminating the bump so that the bunionette does not press painfully against shoes.

  • These are warm or painful sensations caused by an injury to the brachial plexus. This is a network of nerves that passes through your shoulder. They travel down your arm and to your hand.

  • This is an irritation or swelling of the trochanteric bursa. This small, fluid-filled sac is found on the outer side of the femur. It acts as a cushion for the iliotibial band, a thick tendon in your leg.

  • This is a swelling of a fluid-filled sac called the "subacromial bursa." It's in the shoulder, between a bony protrusion called the "acromion" and the rotator cuff. You have similar sacs near other large joints throughout your body. They act as cushions between your bones and your soft tissue....

  • This procedure is used to correct a severe fracture of the calcaneus (the heel bone). During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bone with hardware to allow the bone to heal properly.

  • This procedure is used to correct a "tongue-type" fracture of the calcaneus (the heel bone). During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bone with hardware to allow the bone to heal properly.

  • This painful condition occurs when calcium deposits form in tendons of the rotator cuff. These tendons and surrounding tissues in the shoulder become inflamed. This condition typically affects adults.

  • This painful condition occurs when calcium deposits form in tendons of the rotator cuff. These tendons and surrounding tissues in the shoulder become inflamed. Reactive calcification often develops in young people, but it can affect people of all ages.

  • This surgical procedure treats the pain of carpal tunnel syndrome. It relieves pressure on a nerve that travels through your wrist. This nerve is called the "median" nerve.

  • Pain, numbness and tingling in your hand may be from carpal tunnel syndrome. It happens when the area around the main nerve to your hand is too tight. The nerve is called the median nerve. And the small space in your wrist where it passes is called the carpal tunnel.

  • This technique is designed to treat and repair cartilage defects by regenerating the patient's own hyaline cartilage, (a weight-bearing cartilage that lines the surface of the knee joint).

  • This technique is designed to treat and repair cartilage defects by regenerating the patient's own cartilage cells.

  • This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication through an opening in the sacrum. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.

  • This condition is an abnormally high arch of the foot that results in an excessive amount of body weight being directed to the ball and heel of the foot. Cavus foot can be congenital or acquired, may develop at any age, and can affect one or both feet.

  • This procedure temporarily disrupts the nerves of the celiac plexus. These nerves branch away from your spine. They connect to the organs in your abdomen. Pain signals caused by conditions such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer travel through these nerves on the way to your brain. A celiac...

  • This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

  • This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or radiculopathy can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling...

  • During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn't respond to medications or to physical therapy.

  • This surgical procedure creates more space for the spinal cord and nerve roots to relieve the painful pressure of spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal that can result from arthritis.

  • This procedure is used to treat a painfully restricted spinal canal in the neck. The procedure creates more space for the spinal cord and nerve roots, immediately relieving pressure. The technique is often called an "open door laminaplasty," because the back of the vertebrae is made to swing...

  • This surgery creates more space for a compressed spinal nerve in your neck. The procedure relieves painful pressure caused by a herniated or degenerative disc.

  • This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the cervical spine. Because these nerves travel to the shoulders, arms and hands, an injury in the cervical spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Cervical radiculopathy may result from a variety of problems with the...

  • This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. It can be used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and radiculopathy.

  • This injection procedure is performed to relieve neck, shoulder and arm pain related to compression of a nerve root in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the...

  • This disease, one of the most common inherited neurological disorders, affects motor and sensory nerves throughout the body. It is usually not life-threatening, and rarely affects the brain. CMT is also called hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), or peroneal muscular atrophy.

  • This condition, which most often occurs as a complication of long-term diabetes, is a progressive degenerative condition that affects the foot. It is characterized by nerve damage in the foot along with severely weakened foot bones. This combination can result in a person fracturing the foot,...

  • This surgical procedure is used to help relieve symptoms of hallux rigidus by removing bony growths on top of the big toe's main joint. This procedure improves joint movement and is most successful in patients with less severe arthritis.

  • This is a pain on the outer side of your ankle. It's a lasting pain that you may feel all the time. It can make it hard for you to walk and run, and it can increase the possibility of ankle sprains.

  • This is a common shoulder injury. It's a break of the bone that rests between the shoulder blade and the sternum. We call it the "collarbone." Your collarbones help connect your arms to your body.

  • This is a common foot deformity. With it, one or more toes buckle and curl into a claw shape. Over time, a claw toe can become locked in this position. It can dig into the sole of your foot. You may have trouble finding comfortable shoes.

  • This birth defect results in a shortening of the tendons on the inner side and rear of the foot, which causes the foot to be permanently twisted inward and upward. In about half the cases, both feet are affected. If left untreated, the afflicted person will eventually walk on the outer side of...

  • Inspiring story about 90-year-old Coach Phil Brusca. Dr. Kramer repaired his Achilles Tendon 28 years ago. Read the full story here.

  • This condition is an inflammation of the tip of the tailbone, called the coccyx. It causes pain and tenderness between the buttocks.

  • Colles fracture is a break of one or both of the forearm bones (called the radius and ulna) that occurs just above the wrist. Although this type of injury can be caused by any strong force, Colles is most often associated with trying to break a forward fall.

  • This is a type of chronic, long-lasting, pain. In most cases, it develops in an arm or a leg that you have previously injured. With CRPS, you may have unexplained pain that won't go away. It may be severe, and it may spread.

  • This is a collapse of vertebral bone. It can affect one or more vertebrae. Compression fractures typically develop in your mid or lower back. This can change the shape of your spine.

  • In this minimally invasive surgical procedure, the surgeon replaces the hip joint with the aid of a computer guidance system. The system aids the surgeon in preparing and aligning the joint with the highest degree of accuracy.

  • This procedure treats avascular necrosis by removing degenerated and dead bone tissue and creating room for new, healthy tissue to grow. It typically works best for people who are in the earliest stages of the disease.

  • These are patches of rough, thick skin. Many people have them on their feet. They can form because of pressure or friction, often because of shoes that don't fit properly. Corns and calluses are your skin's way of protecting itself. They are similar, but they are two different things.

  • This outpatient procedure is an injection of pain-relieving medication into one or more costovertebral joints. These are the joints that form the connections between the ribs and the vertebrae.

  • It happened. You’re jogging along the Katy Trail or walking up the steps at work and ouch- you feel a twinge of pain on the outside edge of your kneecap. The small divot on the outside is now tender to the touch. Oh no, did you tear something in your knee? Our brains can easily go to the worst...

  • This scan lets doctors see inside your body by taking x-ray images from many angles. These are combined to show clear cross-section slices of parts of your body. A CT scan shows much more than a typical x-ray. It can show cancer and other problems.

  • This outpatient procedure, performed under general or regional anesthesia, alleviates compression of the ulnar nerve. This nerve travels along the inner side of the elbow and down to the hand. Cubital tunnel release is used to treat cubital tunnel syndrome.

  • This condition is a compression injury to the ulnar nerve near the elbow. This is the nerve that produces a jolt when you bump your "funny bone."

  • This outpatient procedure relieves the symptoms of De Quervain's tenosynovitis by releasing the tendon sheath that wraps around the tendons at the base of the thumb. This relieves pressure and friction on the tendons, allowing them to glide freely.

  • This condition, also called stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, is an inflammation of the sheath that wraps around the tendons at the thumb side of the wrist.

  • This outpatient procedure is designed to repair a damaged Achilles tendon. During the procedure, injured and scarred tissue is removed. This can reduce or eliminate the pain of tendinitis.

  • This condition is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep inside the body. This type of clot most commonly develops in the legs. This condition is dangerous, because the clot can break free and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs.

  • This condition is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process, but it may also result from injury to the back.

  • This condition is a wearing away of cartilage in the hip joint caused by arthritis, which can develop because of trauma, infection, age or autoimmune disorders.

  • Diabetes is commonly perceived as a single illness, but it is actually a group of metabolic disorders that can cause many problems. It is either caused by the pancreas not producing enough insulin (Type 1), or the body’s cells not responding properly to the insulin that is produced (Type 2). A...

  • This term is used to describe foot problems that stem from diabetes. These problems can be difficult to treat.

  • This outpatient procedure is a minimally-invasive surgical technique commonly used to identify problems in the shoulder joint. It is performed with the aid of a specialized camera called an arthroscope.

  • This outpatient procedure is used to remove a mucous cyst, a small, fluid-filled sac that forms on back of the finger near the base of the fingernail.

  • A mucous cyst is a small, fluid-filled sac that forms on the back of the finger near the base of the fingernail. It is a form of ganglion cyst that erupts from the capsule of the joint at the end of the finger, called the DIP joint. The cyst is attached to the joint capsule by a "stalk" that...

  • This microsurgical procedure is used to reconnect the severed ends of a nerve in the hand to allow the nerve to heal and to reduce the possibility that a neuroma will form. Nerve repair can help restore sensation and muscle function, however, in many cases normal sensation and function is not...

  • Direct anterior hip replacement offers an exciting less invasive alternative to traditional techniques used to perform hip arthroplasty. This technique is the only way to access the hip joint that is truly muscle sparing, making it the least invasive of all techniques used to access the hip. The...

  • This minimally-invasive procedure, which takes about 30 minutes to perform, uses radiofrequency probes to treat chronic back pain.

  • This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the lumbar spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc...

  • This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the lumbar spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc...

  • This procedure, also called a "discogram," helps your doctor find painful spinal discs. It can show the source of pain in your back. To see how it works, let's watch a discography done in the lumbar spine.

  • During this minimally-invasive procedure, the surgeon removes the end of the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint in the shoulder. Removing this portion of bone will decompress the joint. It will help relieve the pain and loss of motion caused by arthritis or impingement. This procedure is...

  • This condition is a break of the radius bone at the wrist. The radius is the larger of the two bones that connect the wrist to the elbow. The other bone is called the ulna. The radius supports the majority of forces at the wrist joint with its large joint surface. A fracture of the distal end of...

  • This procedure uses a metal implant to stabilize a fracture in the radius near the wrist. The radius is the largest of the two bones of the forearm.

  • This condition is a thickening of the fascia on the palm of the hand. The fascia is a connective tissue located just beneath the skin of the palm and fingers. This thickened fascia can form lumps or nodules under the skin, or long thick cords of tissue that extend from the palm to the fingers....

  • This procedure is used to correct deformities such as hammertoe and claw toe. The surgeon shortens a bone in the toe to allow the toe to straighten and return to a more natural posture.

  • This is a swelling of a fluid-filled sac in the back of your elbow. This sac is called the "olecranon bursa." You have similar sacs near other large joints throughout your body. They act as cushions between your bones and your soft tissues. Normally they have a small amount of fluid inside them...

  • This is a test of your muscles and nerves. It usually has two parts. One is a nerve conduction study. This measures how well electricity moves through your nerves. The second part is a needle electromyogram. It records the electrical signals your muscles make when you move them. The results can...

  • This procedure is performed to relieve pressure on the median nerve, alleviating the pain of carpal tunnel syndrome and restoring normal sensation to the hand and fingers. The endoscopic technique, performed on an outpatient basis, creates less pain and scarring than traditional open surgery and...

  • This surgery is performed to relieve pressure on the median nerve, alleviating numbness and tingling in the fingers. The endoscopic carpal tunnel technique is performed on an outpatient basis. The endoscopic approach creates less pain and scarring than traditional open surgery, allowing for a...

  • This procedure relieves the pain of chronic plantar fasciitis. This condition is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of connective tissue that stretches across the sole of the foot. This procedure may be performed with local or regional anesthesia and with sedation.

  • In this minimally-invasive procedure, a flexible instrument containing a tiny camera, called an epiduroscope, is used to diagnose the cause of pain in the lower spine and legs, likely from sciatica. During the procedure, the surgeon may also administer medication to treat the pain.

  • Morton's neuroma is an enlarged nerve, compressed or pinched between the bones and the ligament that holds them together. This procedure eases the pain by releasing pressure from the nerve or removing the nerve.

  • During this outpatient procedure, the physician removes a mass that has formed beneath the skin of the foot. This animation will show the removal of the most common type of soft tissue mass (a ganglion cyst). A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled sac that is connected to a joint capsule or tendon...

  • This procedure is used to implant specialized bolts through the facet joints of two or more vertebrae, locking the vertebrae together and stabilizing the spine. The US Spine Facet Fixation System™ uses smaller incisions than a traditional open fusion surgery, allowing for less tissue damage,...

  • The facet joints, found on both sides of the back of the spine, can become painfully irritated or inflamed. A facet joint injection may help diagnose the source of a patient's pain. It can also relieve pain and inflammation.

  • This condition is a deterioration of the facet joints, which help stabilize the spine and limit excessive motion. The facet joints are lined with cartilage and are surrounded by a lubricating capsule that enables the vertebrae to bend and twist.

  • This procedure is performed to block pain signals from traveling along the femoral nerve from the thigh or knee to the brain. It is commonly used to alleviate pain that can appear after certain leg surgeries such as total knee replacement.

  • This minimally-invasive surgical procedure is used to identify and correct problems in the hip joint, such as a torn labrum or damaged articular cartilage, that commonly result from femoral-acetabular impingement.

  • This procedure stabilizes severe fractures of the femur with a metal rod and screws implanted into the center of the bone. This system provides great strength while the bone heals.

  • This surgical procedure uses a metal plate and screws to repair a fractured femur. It retains the femoral head, allowing for more natural movement of the hip joint.

  • This surgical procedure stabilizes severe fractures of the femur by placing a metal rod into the center of the femur.

  • The thigh bone, also called the "femur", is the largest and strongest bone in your body. A femur fracture is a crack or a break of this bone.

  • If your finger is dislocated, that means a bone has been forced out of its normal position. It's a common, painful injury, and one that needs proper treatment.

  • This condition is an abscess that forms within the pad of the fingertip. A felon can swell dramatically, leading to significant pain and sensitivity.

  • The purpose of this procedure is to drain the pus and relieve the pressure and pain that results from an abscess in the pad of the fingertip, called a felon. Although commonly performed on an outpatient basis, severe infections may require hospitalization and antibiotics.

  • If you've fractured a finger, you've broken one or more of the finger bones we call "phalanges." Each individual bone is called a "phalanx." You've got three in each finger, and two in each thumb. They are supported by a network of soft tissues that can also be damaged during a fracture.

  • This procedure uses pins, screws or metal plates to repair broken bones in the fingers. The actual fixation method will depend on the location and pattern of the break.

  • This outpatient procedure is used to resolve the pain of a severely arthritic joint of the finger by permanently stopping finger movement. This is most commonly used for the joint nearest the fingertip, called the DIP joint, although any joint in the finger can be fused.

  • Our fingers are often in harm's way, and our fingertips are prone to injury. A fingertip injury can involve skin, soft tissue, nerves and bone. It can involve the nail and the nailbed. These injuries can be serious, painful, and slow to heal. If you've injured your fingertip, you can take a few...

  • This procedure uses a small, two-piece implant to cover damaged or missing articular cartilage in the MTP joint, where the base of the great toe meets the foot. The implant restores mobility to the bones of this joint, allowing them to glide smoothly against each other. This procedure is...

  • This surgical procedure is performed to help relieve pain in the front of the foot and correct deformities in the MTP joint of the big toe caused by injury, arthritis or genetic defect. The procedure fuses the bone at the base of the big toe to the first metatarsal bone of the foot.

  • This procedure uses screws to repair broken or dislocated bones in the midfoot.

  • The flexor tendons of the hand are responsible for flexion of the fingers and thumb toward the palm. These long structures are connected to the flexor muscles in the forearm. An injury to one of these tendons can cause pain and inability to flex the finger or thumb and grasp with the hand....

  • This injection procedure is performed to diagnose and relieve the pain of piriformis syndrome, an irritation of the sciatic nerve caused by a contraction of the piriformis muscle in the buttocks.

  • This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with arthritis of the knee. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid with maximum accuracy.

  • This condition is a break in the heel bone, called the calcaneus, which forms the back of the foot. This bone supports the foot and is important for normal walking.

  • This is a fracture of a part of the shoulder blade called the "glenoid." This is the socket that holds the head of the humerus (the bone of the upper arm). A glenoid fracture can allow the head of the humerus to slip out of the socket.

  • This condition occurs when the talus, a bone that connects the foot and ankle, develops a fracture from a severe impact or fall. The talus is an important bone of the foot, as it aids in walking on uneven ground and in weight transfer across the ankle joint.

  • This condition is a fracture of the bony bump that is located opposite of the head of the humerus. This type of fracture can interfere with the rotator cuff.

  • This condition is a fracture, or break, of one or more of the metacarpal bones of the hand. The fracture may be nondisplaced, in which the bones remain aligned, or displaced, in which the fractured ends shift out of alignment. Without proper treatment, the bones may not heal correctly. This can...

  • This condition is a break of the scapula, the large, flat, triangular bone that contains the shoulder socket. Because the scapula is well protected by the muscles of the shoulder, scapula fractures are uncommon.

  • This condition is a fracture of a portion of the tibia, also called the shin bone, in the knee joint. The tibial spine is a specialized ridge of bone in the tibia where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) attaches. This ligament is important in maintaining flexibility and stability in the knee...

  • This condition is a loss of motion or stiffness in the shoulder, usually accompanied by pain in the joint. Frozen shoulder is most common in people between the ages of 40 and 60, but can afflict anyone regardless of gender, arm preference or occupation.

  • This outpatient procedure is used to remove a ganglion cyst, a fluid-filled sac that forms as a herniation from a joint capsule, ligament or tendon sheath. Ganglion cysts commonly develop at the wrist.

  • A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms as a herniation from a joint capsule or tendon sheath. The sac is attached to the joint or tendon sheath by a "stalk" that allows fluid to move into the pouch from the joint or sheath. The stalk functions as a valve and often limits fluid drainage...

  • If you’ve noticed a small, round lump growing under the skin along the tendons or joints of your wrists or hands, you may have a ganglion cyst. Although it can be alarming, these non-cancerous lumps are common and there are more than 200,000 US cases per year.

  • This outpatient procedure is used in the correction of conditions such as flatfoot, chronic Achilles tendonitis, or equinus (commonly called toe walking). Gastrocnemius recession lengthens the muscles and tendons at the back of the leg, allowing the heel to shift downward into a more natural...

  • This outpatient procedure is used in the correction of conditions such as flatfoot, chronic Achilles tendonitis, or equinus (commonly called toe walking). Gastrocnemius recession lengthens the muscles and tendons at the back of the leg, allowing the heel to shift downward into a more natural...

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is used to remove tissue in the shoulder joint that has been damaged from arthritis, overuse or injury. The physician uses a small camera, called an arthroscope, which is inserted into the shoulder joint. 

  • If you have pain in your shoulder, you may have a torn labrum. That's the thick band of tissue that goes around your shoulder socket. It helps make the socket deeper. It cushions the bone of your upper arm and keeps it from slipping.

  • “Sit up straight! Don’t slouch,” scolded mothers and grandmothers for generations, and at dinner tables all across the nation, children’s eyes all rolled together.

    It turns out that Mom and Grandma were onto something. Good posture does help portray an image of self-confidence, it looks...

  • Revision hip is performed to replace worn artificial hip parts and damaged bone with new metal, plastic or ceramic components. Several revision options are available, chosen based on the condition of the patient's bones. This animation will show multiple revision techniques.

  • This is a form of arthritis. It causes pain and swelling in your joints. For many people, it starts in the big toe.

  • Growth plates are sections of cartilage near the ends of bones that are present until a person reaches maturity. They allow the skeleton to grow and lengthen, but are highly susceptible to injury. Growth plate injuries can result from overuse of a joint or from trauma.

  • This condition is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel that can aggravate the retrocalcaneal bursa, a fluid-filled sac located on the back of the heel between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus. The bursa can become inflamed and swollen, a condition called bursitis. Haglund's deformity...

  • This treatment removes a bony bump on the back of your heel. That bump is called a "Haglund's deformity." It can cause heel pain.

  • This condition, also known as hallux limitus, is a form of degenerative arthritis that affects the joint at the base of the big toe. It causes pain and stiffness in the big toe, which increases over time as the toe becomes increasingly rigid and hard to bend.

  • This condition is a deformity in which a toe bends downward at the middle joint. The second toe is the one most likely to be affected, but this deformity can occur in other toes as well. Sometimes, more than one toe is affected.

  • This surgical procedure is used to correct a hammertoe, a deformity of the toe that causes the toe to become permanently frozen in a bent position. During this procedure, a small piece of bone is removed to shorten the toe and allow it to straighten.

  • This procedure uses a small, metal, cap-like implant to cover damaged or missing articular cartilage in the shoulder joint. Articular cartilage covers the joint surfaces of bones, allowing them to glide smoothly against each other. In the shoulder, arthritis or an injury may result in loss or...

  • This condition is a rupture of one of the vertebral discs in your neck. A herniated disc can allow disc material to press harmfully against the spinal nerves.

  • A herniated disc is a common injury that can affect any part of the spine. A herniated disc can cause severe pain and other problems in the arms or legs.

  • This condition is a sprain of one or more of the ligaments that hold the tibia and fibula together at the ankle. This joint, called the ankle syndesmosis, is made up of ligaments on the front and rear of the ankle, and in the space between the tibia and fibula.

  • This procedure removes a wedge of bone from the tibia, straightening the leg and correcting the deformity known as bow-leggedness.

  • This condition is a traumatic fracture of the humeral head that leaves an indentation in the bone. This changes the shape of the humeral head and can interfere with normal arm motion.

  • This outpatient procedure is an examination of the inside of the hip joint. The surgeon uses miniature instruments and a small camera (called an arthroscope) to see inside the joint. Arthroscopy can be used to diagnose and treat problems of the joint.

  • With this injury, the head of your femur (which is shaped like a ball) slips out of your hip socket. It may slip forward or backward out of position. This can damage structures around the joint.

  • This is a break of the upper part of your femur. The femur is the long bone in your upper leg. At the top of the femur is the "head." This is the ball that fits into your hip socket. A hip fracture may happen at the "neck" of the femur (the thin portion of bone under the head). Fractures may...

  • A broken hip is serious and disabling. With a broken hip, you may not be able to care for yourself. Sometimes, complications from a hip fracture can lead to death. Avoid a broken hip with these basic safety measures.

  • This surgical procedure uses metal surgical screws to repair a fracture of the femur. This procedure is typically used for patients who have minimal damage to the bone and minimal shifting from the fracture.

  • This surgical procedure replaces the head of a damaged femur with an implant designed to stabilize the femur and restore hip function. Unlike total hip replacement, in which both the ball of the femur and the hip socket are replaced, in this procedure, only the ball is replaced.

  • This surgical procedure replaces the head of a damaged femur with an implant designed to stabilize the femur and restore hip function. Unlike total hip replacement, in which both the ball of the femur and the hip socket are replaced, in this procedure, only the ball is replaced.

  • If you have pain in your hip, your doctor may inject medicine into your hip joint. It can help your doctor find where your pain is coming from. It can also make your hip feel better.

  • If you’re facing knee replacement surgery, you probably have this question on your mind: how long until I’m back to normal after knee replacement surgery? The impact of knee replacement surgery is different for every patient. Your current health condition, medical history, family background,...

  • During this non-operative, outpatient procedure, the physician injects a pain relief medication called HYALGAN@ into the knee joint. The HYALGAN will help the knee move smoothly, reducing or relieving the pain of osteoarthritis.

  • This injury occurs when the elbow is bent backwards beyond its normal range of motion, causing damage to the ligaments, bones and structures of the elbow. Hyperextension of the elbow can cause dislocation or fractures.

  • In this minimally-invasive procedure, the spinal nerve roots are decompressed and a metal device is implanted to stabilize the spine and help relieve back problems from conditions such as spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative arthritis.

  • This condition is a painful inflammation of the iliotibial band, a thick, tendon-like portion of a muscle that travels from the hip down the outer side of the thigh to the knee. ITBS results in pain, aggravated by activity, that is usually felt on the outer side of the knee.

  • This condition is an inflammation of a part of the tendon that connects the biceps muscle to the radius bone at the elbow.

  • This is a type of arthritis that can affect people of all ages. It's not the same as the most common form of arthritis, called "osteoarthritis." That type commonly comes from wear and tear. Inflammatory arthritis can develop without any wear and tear at all.

  • An ingrown toenail occurs when the corners of a nail curl downward and grow into the skin on the edge of the toe, causing pain and swelling.

  • This surgical procedure is used to stabilize a femoral head that has slipped off the neck of the femur. One or more screws are inserted through the neck and into the femoral head.

  • In this minimally-invasive outpatient procedure, usually performed under local anesthesia and sedation, a titanium alloy device is implanted to relieve back pain and numbness in the legs caused by lumbar spinal stenosis. This procedure is an alternative to laminectomy or spinal fusion.

  • In this surgical procedure, a titanium alloy device is implanted to relieve back pain or numbness in the legs or buttocks caused by spinal stenosis. This procedure is a non-fusion, minimally-invasive alternative to laminectomy with or without spinal fusion.

  • During this procedure, a mixture of anesthesia and anti-inflammatory medication is injected into the space between the head of the humerus and the glenoid. This injection can be used to treat a variety of painful conditions, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and adhesive capsulitis...

  • This is a treatment for chronic pain in your lower back. The physician uses heat to reduce the sensitivity of nerve fibers in a spinal disc. More than one disc may be treated.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure, performed through a tube called a cannula, is designed to relieve the pain caused by herniated disc tissue pressing against nerve roots in the spine. The surgery is performed under general anesthesia, and the patient is allowed to leave the hospital the same...

  • This technique is used during complex surgical procedures, especially those that involve manipulation of the spinal cord. IOM allows a neurotechnologist to monitor the health of the nervous system in real time during surgery. This greatly reduces the risk of surgery-related nerve damage.

  • An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and...

  • An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and...

  • This outpatient injection procedure relieves pain in the shoulder and arm caused by arthritis, injury or disorder.

  • This procedure removes diseased or damaged synovium, a thin layer of tissue that lines joint capsules and tendon sheaths and provides lubrication for movement. The synovium can be inflamed for a variety of reasons, most commonly rheumatoid arthritis.

  • This procedure is used to correct a Jones fracture - a fracture of the fifth metatarsal bone of the foot. During this procedure, the surgeon inserts a screw into the metatarsal to stabilize the bone and allow it to heal properly.

  • This procedure is used to correct a Jones fracture - a fracture of the fifth metatarsal bone of the foot. During this procedure, the surgeon inserts one or more screws (and sometimes additional hardware) to stabilize the bone and allow it to heal properly.

  • This is a break of a bone in the foot called the "fifth metatarsal." It's on your foot's outer side, behind the little toe. With a Jones fracture, this bone breaks on the end furthest from the toe. The fifth metatarsal doesn't have a good blood supply there, so healing can be difficult.

  • During this outpatient procedure, the physician removes a problematic accessory navicular bone. The accessory navicular is an abnormal, unnecessary bone found in a small percentage of people. It is located on the inner side of the foot.

  • Kienbock's disease is the death and deterioration of the lunate, one of the small bones in the wrist. It usually occurs in young adults and causes wrist pain, weakness, and loss of motion. 

  • This minimally-invasive procedure repairs a vertebral compression fracture. It helps restore the spine's natural shape. Some patients experience rapid pain relief after the procedure.

  • This condition is a deformity of the spine. With it, your vertebrae change from a cylindrical shape to a wedge shape. Your spine may begin to curve forward. Eventually, this gives your upper back a rounded appearance.

  • If your hip joint hurts, or if it catches or clicks when you move your leg, you may have a torn labrum. That's a rim of tissue that surrounds the hip's socket. It helps to deepen the socket and cushion the joint. A torn labrum can keep the hip joint from working smoothly.

  • This procedure relieves pressure on the nerve roots in the spine. It is most commonly performed to relieve the pain of stenosis. This is a narrowing of the spinal canal that is often caused by the formation of bony growths that can press against the nerve roots. The surgeon may treat one or more...

  • This procedure removes a section of bone from the rear of one or more vertebrae to relieve the painful and disabling pressure of stenosis.

  • This procedure removes a section of bone from the rear of one or more vertebrae to relieve the painful and disabling pressure of stenosis. The spine is then stabilized with rods and screws.

  • This procedure is used to correct a bunion, a bony bump at the base of the great toe caused by excess bone growth and misalignment of the bones of the foot and toe. This procedure removes the bump and brings the toe back into proper alignment.

  • This procedure uses a small incision to replace the diseased and damaged portion of the hip joint. Patients feel less pain and recover more quickly compared to patients who undergo traditional hip replacement surgery, which requires a longer incision. The implants used are the same as the ones...

  • This procedure is performed to correct chronic ankle instability that has not responded to treatment such as physical therapy. Ankle instability occurs when ligaments are stretched or torn. A simple repair, known as the Bröstrom-Gould technique, is ideal for athletes who need to retain full...

  • This surgical procedure is used to modify the shape of the foot, creating an arch to correct the condition of pes planus (commonly called flat foot or fallen arch). It can dramatically change the shape of the foot, giving the foot a more normal appearance.

  • This condition, commonly called tennis elbow, is an inflammation of the tendons that connect the muscles of the forearm to the elbow. The pain is primarily felt at the lateral epicondyle, the bony bump on the outer side of the elbow.

  • This procedure is designed to loosen or tighten ligaments on either side of the patella (kneecap) to improve the movement of the patella in patients suffering from patellar tracking disorder. This procedure is usually performed arthroscopically through one or two small incisions near the patella...

  • This surgical procedure is performed to treat fingers that have become flexed because of Dupuytren's contracture. In this procedure, the thickened and contracted part of the fascia - the layer of tissue just beneath the skin - is removed. There are many variations of this surgery based on the...

  • This injury occurs when the base of the second metatarsal is broken, or when a ligament that connects this metatarsal to one of the cuneiform bones of the midfoot is ruptured.

  • Loose bodies are pieces of cartilage or bone of various sizes that have broken away and become trapped in a joint. Loose bodies usually have an irregular shape, but over time they may be worn down into a smooth, spherical or disc-shaped mass.

  • During this minimally-invasive outpatient procedure, the surgeon removes debris from within the knee joint. This debris is usually a piece of bone, cartilage or other tissue that has broken free and is floating within the joint.

  • This procedure is performed to relieve the pain caused when diseased or damaged vertebrae bone blocks and pinches nerve roots. It also corrects spinal column deformities. During this procedure, the patient is positioned on his right side. The surgery is performed through the patient's left side...

  • This minimally-invasive procedure relieves pressure on nerve roots caused by a herniated disc. It can eliminate the pain of sciatica.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. This surgery is performed through a small tubular device under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

  • This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

  • This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.

  • Designed to be a less invasive way to fuse the spine, IBF is generally used for the treatment of back pain caused by degenerative disc disease. When the procedure is performed from the front (anterior) of the spine, a minimally-invasive endoscopic technique may be used. The surgery in the...

  • This minimally-invasive procedure uses special guides and fluoroscopic imaging to allow a surgeon to precisely implant stabilizing screws and rods in the spine while minimizing damage to muscles, tendons and other soft tissue in the back.

  • This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and...

  • In this minimally-invasive procedure, a metal device is implanted to stabilize the spine and help relieve back problems from conditions such as spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative arthritis. This procedure is often performed in addition to spinal fixation with pedicle screws and...

  • This procedure is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your lower back. It helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to these nerves. Usually, a series of injections is needed to treat a problem.

  • This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. This procedure is performed to relieve pain in the lower back and pain that radiates from the back to the legs. The injection takes only a...

  • This condition is an injury to the end of the extensor tendon that straightens the finger's end joint, called the DIP joint. It results in drooping of the fingertip, and prevents the finger from being straightened.

  • This surgery corrects a toe that has become permanently bent downward. This technique straightens your toe to allow your foot to function normally.

  • This condition, also known as Little League elbow, is an injury to the medial epicondyle growth plate. It causes pain in the elbow, and may cause swelling. This condition is most common in young baseball pitchers.

  • This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.

  • This surgical procedure is used to modify the shape of the foot, creating an arch to correct the condition of pes planus (commonly called flat foot or fallen arch).

  • This outpatient procedure, performed under general or regional anesthesia, removes the medial epicondyle (the bony bump on the inner side of the elbow) to alleviate compression of the ulnar nerve. Medial epicondylectomy is used to treat cubital tunnel syndrome.

  • This condition, commonly called golfer's elbow, is an inflammation of the tendons that connect the muscles of the forearm to the elbow. The pain is primarily felt at the medial epicondyle, the bony bump on the inner side of the elbow.

  • This condition is an injury to the medial ulnar collateral ligament, a ligament composed of three bands located on the inner side of the elbow. The MUCL connects the humerus to the ulna. Injury to the MUCL can cause pain, weakness and sometimes a feeling of instability in the arm.

  • This procedure is designed to repair a torn elbow ligament - an injury typically caused by strong, repetitive overhead throwing motions of the arm or by dislocation of the elbow. It was first performed in 1974 on baseball pitcher Tommy John.

  • This outpatient procedure is performed to replace lost or severely damaged meniscal cartilage in the knee joint. In a healthy knee, this cartilage is present in two c-shaped wedges called menisci. Each one is called a meniscus. These wedges help cushion and stabilize the knee. This procedure is...

  • Each of your knee joints is cushioned by two c-shaped wedges of cartilage. The two cushions in each knee are called the "menisci." Individually, each cushion is called a "meniscus." Certain motions, such as twisting the knee, can cause a meniscus to tear. In many cases, a torn meniscus can be...

  • This is a common injury of the knee. Your knee joint is cushioned by two c-shaped wedges of cartilage called the "menisci." Each individual cushion is called a "meniscus." This injury is a tear of one of these cushions.

  • This form of cancer develops in or near the spinal cord or within the vertebrae. It can spread through multiple levels of the spine. It can lead to a wide range of serious complications.

  • This procedure is used to correct a fracture of one or more of the long bones of the foot. During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bones with hardware to allow the bones to heal properly.

  • The ball of your foot absorbs a lot of stress when you run and jump. It can become injured and sore. We call this pain "metatarsalgia." The pain can keep you from exercising and from playing sports. And it can be a problem for active people.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. This surgery is usually performed on an outpatient basis, which allows the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

  • This surgery removes bone and/or portions of a herniated or diseased disc to relieve neck and radiating arm pain caused by parts of the disc pressing on nerve roots.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure repairs damaged cartilage in the knee joint. Small holes are drilled into the bone at the base of the damaged area to stimulate the growth of healthy "scar" cartilage.

  • This surgical procedure is performed to help relieve pain in the foot and correct deformities in the midfoot caused by injury, trauma, arthritis, or genetic defect. The procedure fuses any combination of the navicular, cuboid and cuneiform bones in the midfoot.

  • Mini-incision Total Knee Arthroplasty, also called MIS TKA, replaces the damaged and painful areas of the knee joint with metal and polyethylene plastic parts. The MIS total knee procedure is performed through an incision that is smaller than the incision used for traditional total knee...

  • This procedure uses a small incision to replace the diseased and damaged portion of the hip joint. Patients feel less pain and recover more quickly compared to patients who undergo traditional hip replacement surgery, which requires a longer incision. While this procedure uses specialized...

  • This surgical procedure is used to inspect and reattach torn tendons in the shoulder's rotator cuff. The initial part of the surgery is performed arthroscopically through small tubes. An open incision may be needed if the damage is severe.

  • Toe bone spur removal is a quick procedure that may be performed in the doctor's office or in the hospital.

  • This minimally invasive procedure is used to remove overgrown vertebral bone and soft tissue to relieve the compression of nerve roots in the lumbar spine. It is performed through a small incision on the back.

  • This minimally invasive procedure is used to remove a degenerated disc to relieve the compression of nerve roots in the lumbar spine. It is performed through a small incision on the back.

  • This condition is a thickening of the nerve sheath that surrounds a nerve in the ball of the foot. It most commonly develops between the third and fourth toes. It also commonly occurs between the second and third toes.

  • This scan lets doctors see inside your body without using radiation. Instead, MRIs use magnets and radio waves. An MRI shows clear views of your soft tissues. It can show cancer and other problems.

  • This condition is a sharp or aching pain in the ball of the foot that is most often centered beneath the base of the second toe. This pain is an indication that the bone at the base of the toe, called the proximal phalanx, is beginning to separate from the long bone of the foot, called the...

  • Some of the muscles in your shoulder have opposing roles. When you move your arm, certain muscles contract while their opposing muscles relax. But when a muscle becomes much stronger than its opposing muscle, your shoulder can become unstable. You may have trouble moving it normally. We call...

  • The hip is where the femur meets the pelvis. Several strong muscles are found here. They handle high loads of stress. They may suffer from overstretching and tearing. This is called a muscle "strain." It's a common injury among athletes who play sports that require sudden starts and stops.

  • Your thigh has groups of powerful muscles. The quadriceps, the adductors and the hamstring muscles handle high loads of stress. They may suffer from overstretching and tearing. This is called a muscle "strain." It is a common injury among athletes who play sports that require sudden starts and...

  • This outpatient procedure is a diagnostic examination of the spine. It allows the physician to identify problems involving the spine, the spinal cord and the nerve roots.

  • This is a problem that affects your spinal cord. It happens when something presses harmfully against it. Your spinal cord is the main nerve pathway between your brain and your body. Pressure on it can cause problems throughout your body.

  • This condition is an injury to the navicular, one of the tarsal bones of the midfoot. This type of injury is common in athletes, particularly those who participate in high-impact sports that require jumping, sprinting and sudden directional changes. Track and field athletes are particularly...

  • This minimally-invasive, non-surgical office procedure is used to help straighten fingers that have become bent by Dupuytren's contracture. A small needle is used to cut the contracted cords that cause the contracture and prevent the finger from fully extending.

  • This noninvasive, outpatient exam is used to measure how quickly nerves conduct electrical signals through the body. NCS is a valuable technique for diagnosing nerve damage. If damage exists, NCS can help a physician find its source.

  • Complex networks of nerves travel through your hands and fingers. If you injure a hand or a finger, you can damage these delicate nerves. Without proper care, a nerve injury can cause permanent problems.

  • This procedure replaces areas of damaged cartilage with grafts of the patient's own healthy hyaline cartilage. The procedure, also known as mosaicplasty, is performed using small instruments through incisions on the sides of the knee. The surgeon uses a small video camera called an arthroscope...

  • This surgical procedure aligns and stabilizes the cervical spine to correct instability at the junction of the spine and skull, which can be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, spinal tumors, and spinal trauma.

  • This surgical procedure repairs a break in the proximal end of the humerus. ORIF stands for Open Reduction Internal Fixation. During this procedure, an incision will be made and a metal plate will be attached to the humerus to hold the bone in place while it heals.

  • In this outpatient procedure, the surgeon inserts a thin metal implant to resurface lost or moderately damaged cartilage on the inner side of the knee joint, called the medial compartment. The implant can be used to replace articular cartilage, which covers the ends of the knee bones, and also...

  • This is a type of injury that causes knee pain in children. It's an inflammation of a growth plate in the tibia. Growth plates are places where new bone tissue forms. They are found in the long bones of growing children. But growth plates are weaker than the surrounding bone. That makes them...

  • Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It develops over time, often because of the wear and tear of daily activities.

  • Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in the joints. Osteoarthritis is common in the hip because the hip bears the weight of the body. Osteoarthritis...

  • Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in the joints. Osteoarthritis is common in the knees because the knees bear the weight of the body....

  • Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in the joints. Osteoarthritis of the shoulder can severely impact a person's lifestyle.

  • The talus, lined with articular cartilage, connects to the tibia and fibula to make up the ankle joint. An osteochondral injury occurs when the talus and/or surrounding cartilage is bruised, fractured, or chipped from an injury.

  • This is a disorder that most often affects young athletes. It happens when part of a bone in the elbow loses its blood supply. It weakens, and so does the cartilage that covers it. Bone and cartilage may break off and drift around in the elbow. That can cause the joint to catch and lock up.

  • This condition is characterized by the death of an area of cartilage and bone in the knee joint. The dead section may remain in place, forming a lesion, or it may loosen and partially detach from the surrounding bone. It may break away completely and float around inside the joint.

  • If you have an infection in a bone, you have osteomyelitis. It's a serious condition that can cause part of your bone to die. And, the infection can spread to other parts of your body.

  • As you get older, your bones may get weaker. This is called "osteoporosis." Weak bones are more likely to break. Osteoporosis can be a problem for anyone, but it is more common in women.

  • As you get older, your risk for osteoporosis increases. That's a disease that makes your bones thin and weak. A screening procedure called a "bone density test" shows if you have osteoporosis. It shows if you are likely to develop it. Or, if you are being treated for osteoporosis, it can show if...

  • If you are an athlete, or if you work with your arms and hands, your elbows may be at risk for an overuse injury. This is an injury caused by repetitive motions. This type of injury can be a problem for people who play sports such as tennis or baseball. Children also have a higher risk, because...

  • This condition is an infection of the skin around the fingernail, usually at the side of the nail. Infections are usually mild, but may quickly increase in severity if not properly treated. Some infections may be chronic, and difficult to treat.

  • This surgery replaces the diseased and damaged parts of the femur (thigh bone) with a metal ball component.

  • Unlike total knee replacement surgery, this less invasive procedure replaces only the damaged or arthritic parts of the knee. The OXFORD® unicompartmental knee uses metal and plastic implants designed to potentially last longer and wear down less easily than traditional implants.

  • The meniscus is a cushion of cartilage. There are two in each knee. If one of these shock absorbers is worn out or hurt, you may need a partial meniscectomy to remove the damaged areas.

  • This procedure is used to remove the problem portion of an ingrown toenail and to prevent the ingrown toenail from recurring. Matrixectomy is performed under local anesthetic, and requires only a few minutes to complete.

  • This is a break of the patella. That's the small bone in the front of your knee often called the "kneecap." The kneecap protects the joint and helps link your thigh muscles to your lower leg. A fracture can cause pain and other problems.

  • This is a pain you feel just below your patella (the bone we commonly call the "kneecap"). It's an injury to your patellar tendon, which connects the bottom of the kneecap to the shinbone.

  • This is a tear of a large tendon in the front of your knee. We call it the "patellar tendon." It connects the bottom of the kneecap to the top of the shinbone. It helps you straighten your leg. You can have a tear that doesn't go all the way through the tendon, or you can tear the tendon...

  • This is a problem with the alignment of the patella (the bone at the front of the knee, commonly called the "kneecap"). With this disorder, the patella shifts out of its normal track as you bend or extend your knee.

  • This is a pain you feel in the front of your knee. It involves the patella. That's the bone we commonly call the "kneecap." The patella slides up and down in a groove on your femur as you bend and extend your knee. If you have this syndrome, you may have injured the soft tissues that support and...

  • This surgical procedure removes portions of damaged cartilage on the femur in the knee joint that have been rubbing against the underside of the patella, causing pain and loss of mobility. This cartilage is then replaced with a specially-designed implant.

  • This is a method of pain control. With it, you push a button attached to an IV pump device to give yourself a dose of pain relief medication. PCEA is often used to ease the pain of childbirth. It can also be helpful in the days immediately after some surgical procedures.

  • This serious injury is a break of a child's thigh bone, called the femur. Because the femur is the largest and strongest bone in the body, this type of injury is relatively uncommon, accounting for only a small percentage of all pediatric fractures.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced radiofrequency technology to reduce a herniated disc. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis.

  • This is a procedure to treat a herniated disc. That's a bulging disc in your spine. Getting rid of the bulge can relieve pressure on your nerves. It can relieve pain in your lower back and your legs.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced radiofrequency technology to reduce a herniated disc, quickly relieving pain in most patients. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis using a gentle, relaxing medicine and local anesthetic.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure uses a small needle and advanced laser technology to reduce a herniated disc, quickly relieving pain in most patients. The procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis using a gentle, relaxing medicine and local anesthetic.

  • This noninvasive, outpatient exam is used to measure how quickly nerves conduct electrical signals through the body. NCS is a valuable technique for diagnosing nerve damage. If damage exists, NCS can help a physician find its source.

  • This condition is a tearing of one or both peroneal tendons, which travel down the lower leg, behind the lateral malleolus and along the outer side of the ankle.

  • This condition is an inflammation of one or both peroneal tendons, which travel down the lower leg, behind the lateral malleolus and along the outer side of the ankle.

  • This condition is a deformity of the femoral head caused by a temporary loss of blood supply to the hip joint. Perthes disease usually affects children between four and 10 years of age.

  • This scan lets doctors see inside your body. A PET scan is different from an MRI or a CT scan, because it shows how your organs and systems are working. It can give doctors a clear view of some types of cancer cells, which show up brightly on a PET scan. It can also help doctors diagnose other...

  • This injury is a fracture at the base of the tibia (the largest of the two bones in the lower leg). Pilon fractures involve the weight-bearing surface of the tibia, and typically occur just above the ankle. In many cases, when the tibia is fractured, the thinner bone in the lower leg (called the...

  • This outpatient procedure is a surgical cutting of part of the plantar fascia, a thick band of connective tissue that supports the foot's arch. By partially cutting this tissue, the surgeon releases tension and allows the tendon to lengthen. This procedure is commonly performed to relieve pain...

  • Plantar fasciitis is an irritation of the plantar fascia. This thick band of connective tissue travels across the bottom of the foot between the toes and the heel. It supports the foot's natural arch. It stretches and becomes taut whenever the foot bears weight.

  • This is a type of wart that forms on the sole of the foot. It causes a patch of thickened skin. Plantar warts are common, and they aren't harmful. But they can be tender, and they can be embarrassing.

  • PLIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

  • This condition is a common congenital anomaly that results in extra fingers or thumbs. Polydactyly can affect one or both hands, and can result in one or more extra digits. Polydactyly can also affect the feet, resulting in extra toes.

  • This outpatient procedure numbs the lower leg with an injection of local anesthesia. Typically, it is used for surgery on the lower leg, ankle and foot.

  • This condition, also called "failed back syndrome," is a type of chronic pain. It can develop in some people after spine surgery.

  • Strong bands of tissue called "ligaments" help stabilize the bones that form the knee joint. One of these ligaments is called the "PCL." It helps connect the femur to the tibia. If you stretch or tear a PCl, your knee may become unstable.

  • This surgical procedure replaces a damaged posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The PCL is a band of tissue that connects the femur to the tibia inside the knee.

  • This condition is an overstretching and inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon, which travels from a muscle in the calf down to the arch of the foot. This tendon is one of the major supporting structures of the foot's arch and aids in walking.

  • Recovering from total knee replacement surgery can be a painful, grueling experience. The good news is many patients experience a new lease on life after knee replacement that allows them to enjoy golf, running, dancing, and many other activities that were painful to experience before the...

  • This condition is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa, a fluid-filled sac that covers the front of the kneecap. Prepatellar bursitis results in pain and swelling at the front of the knee.

  • This condition is a fracture of the head of the humerus - the "ball" of the shoulder's ball-and-socket.

  • This condition is a tear of the tendon that connects the patella to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh. The quadriceps muscle is used to straighten the leg from the bent position. A complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a disabling injury.

  • This injection, generally performed as an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia, relieves low back and leg pain most often caused by scarring from a prior back surgery. The procedure is performed with the patient lying face down with a cushion placed under the stomach.

  • This outpatient procedure, performed under general or regional anesthesia, alleviates compression of the radial nerve. This nerve travels along the outer side of the elbow and down to the hand. Radial tunnel release is used to treat radial tunnel syndrome.

  • This condition involves the radial nerve in your elbow. The radial nerve passes down your arm to your hand. Its branches travel into your thumb, forefinger and middle finger. With this condition, your radial nerve is compressed, stretched or irritated.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is used to treat a rare type of benign tumor, called an osteoid osteoma, that forms within bone. This type of cancer most commonly occurs in the weight-bearing bones of children and young adults.

  • During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn't respond to medications or to physical therapy.

  • During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your lower back. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn't respond to medications or to physical therapy.

  • During this procedure, the surgeon uses a specialized radiofrequency instrument to break up scar tissue in a painfully-inflamed Achilles tendon. The coblation procedure can be performed as a minimally-invasive procedure through the skin, or it can be performed as part of an open surgical...

  • Raynaud's phenomenon is an exaggerated form of vasoconstriction - the body's natural response to cold and stress. It results from a spasm of the small arteries that supply blood to the fingers. This spasm temporarily decreases blood flow, resulting in cold, painful, and discolored fingers.

  • During this procedure, the surgeon replaces a damaged shoulder joint with artificial components that reverse the structure of the shoulder. This procedure is most often used for patients who have had a failed total shoulder replacement. It is also helpful for patients who have had a complete...

  • This surgery replaces worn artificial hip parts and damaged bone with new metal, plastic or ceramic components. The new components restore normal hip joint stability.

  • Revision hip is performed to replace worn artificial hip parts and damaged bone with new metal, plastic or ceramic components. Several revision options are available, chosen based on the condition of the patient's bones. This animation will show multiple revision techniques.

  • This procedure replaces worn artificial knee parts and damaged bone with new metal and plastic components.

  • This procedure replaces worn artificial knee parts and damaged bone with new, specially-made metal and plastic components.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis, a condition that can attack joints throughout the body, commonly affects both feet and both ankles at the same time. It can cause the joints to become swollen and possibly deformed, causing disability.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis, a condition that can attack joints throughout the body, commonly affects the joints and surrounding tendons of the wrist and fingers. It can cause the joints to become swollen, painful and possibly deformed. This can interfere with normal hand function. It can significantly...

  • Rheumatoid arthritis, a condition that can attack joints throughout the body, commonly affects the joints and surrounding tendons of the wrist and fingers. It can cause the joints to become swollen, painful and possibly deformed, interfering with normal hand function and significantly impacting...

  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease of the immune system. This is the system that protects you from infection. RA may cause pain and stiffness in your shoulder where the humerus (the bone of the upper arm) meets the shoulder socket. It can also affect the joint where your clavicle meets your...

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (we call it "RA") is a chronic disease. It affects joints throughout your body. It commonly starts in your hands or feet. For many people, it causes problems in the feet and ankles.

  • The rotator cuff muscles and tendons hold your upper arm bone in your shoulder socket. A hard fall, repetitive arm motions or problems with the structure of your shoulder can injure the rotator cuff.

  • Almost any movement of the shoulders involve the rotator cuff especially motion above the shoulder level. This group of muscles and tendons that surround and support the shoulder joint keep the top of your upper arm bone firmly inside the shallow socket of your shoulder. If you are experiencing...

  • This surgery repairs a tear of the rotator cuff in your shoulder. The rotator cuff is group of muscles and tendons. It holds the head of the humerus in the shoulder socket.

  • This surgical procedure is used to repair a torn supraspinatus tendon, one of the tendons that forms the rotator cuff of the shoulder. During this procedure, the tendon is reattached firmly to the head of the humerus.

  • The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons in each shoulder. It holds your upper arm bone in your shoulder socket. It keeps your arm stable while allowing it to lift and rotate. Too much stress on the rotator cuff can cause a tear. This can be a painful injury.

  • This injection procedure is performed to relieve pain caused by arthritis in the sacroiliac joint where the spine and hip bone meet. The steroid medication can reduce swelling and inflammation in the joint.

  • This procedure stabilizes a fractured scaphoid bone with screw fixation. The scaphoid is an important carpal bone of the wrist, which is critical in coordinating motion of the other carpal bones and the radius.

  • A scaphoid fracture, one of the most common types of wrist fractures, is a break in the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid, one of the most important bones in the wrist, has a limited blood supply. An improperly treated scaphoid fracture can result in significant wrist pain, arthritis, and loss of...

  • This condition is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It most often develops in early childhood, just before a child reaches puberty.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a small tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. The surgery is performed under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

  • This is an infection in the knee joint. It causes your knee to become painfully inflamed. Without proper treatment, it can become a chronic problem. It can permanently damage your knee.

  • This injury involves two small bones under the foot near the big toe. They are called "sesamoid" bones. They aren't directly connected to other bones of the foot. Instead, the sesamoids are embedded in tendons. With sesamoiditis, these bones and the tendons around them become irritated and...

  • This is pain you feel in the front of one or both of your lower legs. It can be a problem for runners, dancers, gymnasts and other active people.

  • The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint. The ball of your upper arm bone fits into a socket in your shoulder blade. If the ball slips out, your shoulder has "dislocated."

  • This is a painful pinching of soft tissues in your shoulder. It happens when these tissues rub and press against a part of your shoulder blade called the "acromion." This can irritate your rotator cuff tendons, and also a soft sac called the "subacromial bursa."

  • This is a looseness of the shoulder joint. With it, your arm slides around too much in the socket. It may slip out of the socket easily. Instability can happen because the ligaments that hold your shoulder together aren't tight enough. Or, the cartilage around your shoulder socket may be damaged...

  • This surgery replaces the damaged or diseased part of the humerus head (also known as the ball) with a metal implant.

  • This is an injury of the acromioclavicular joint (commonly called the "AC" joint). This is the joint where the clavicle meets the scapula. A shoulder separation is a stretching or a tearing of the ligaments that support these bones. This allows the bones to move out of position.

  • This arthroscopic procedure is performed to repair a tear of the biceps tendon at the point where it connects to the labrum, a ring of cartilage that surrounds the shoulder socket. A tear at this point is called a SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior) tear. SLAP repair is performed under...

  • This condition is a tear of the labrum in the shoulder joint. The labrum is a ring of cartilage around the shoulder socket that stabilizes the head of the humerus. A SLAP tear occurs at the point where the biceps tendon attaches to the labrum.

  • This disorder, which affects children between 10-15 years old, occurs when the head of the femur slips off the femoral neck. This misaligns the femur with the socket. In most cases, SCFE is a gradual process that occurs while the bones are still growing, but it can also occur suddenly. SCFE may...

  • This fusion device is designed to correct misalignments of the toe bones. It can be used for a range of deformities, including hammertoe, claw toe, mallet toe, arthritis and dislocations. The implant is contained completely within the bones of the toe, leaving no pins or screws sticking out.

  • This is a snapping or a popping sensation in your hip. It may happen when you stand up, when you walk, or when you move your leg a certain way.

  • This is a problem that involves the scapula. That's the bone we call the "shoulder blade." With this condition, you have a shoulder blade that catches when you lift or move your arm. You may find this only slightly irritating, or it may be very painful.

  • Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom...

  • Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, ams and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom...

  • Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom...

  • Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom...

  • Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom...

  • This mass is a collection of pus that forms in the spinal canal. It forms between the spinal cord (or nerve roots) and the vertebral bones. In the cervical and thoracic regions of the spine, it can press against the spinal cord. In the lumbar region, it can press against the nerve roots. A...

  • In many spinal surgeries, two or more vertebral bones are permanently joined with a technique called "spinal fusion." A fusion creates a solid mass of bone. It stabilizes your spine.

  • This is an infection most often caused by staphylococcus or E. coli bacteria. It may involve the bones, discs and soft tissues of your spine. It can start in one area of your spine and spread to other parts. It can cause pain and other problems.

  • The spinal column contains open spaces that create passageways for the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of (or an intrusion into) these openings. This can cause a compression of the nerves. Spinal stenosis most commonly affects the cervical and lumbar regions of...

  • This condition is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from the degeneration of bones, discs, or joints in the cervical spine.

  • This condition affects the thoracic spine between the neck and the lower back. It is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from degeneration of bones in the spine, disc herniation, or thickening of the tissues that surround the spinal cord.

  • This minimally-invasive surgical procedure treats chronic lower back or leg pain by stabilizing damaged or misaligned vertebrae with specially-designed screws, spacers and cables. The flexible DYNESYS® system is an alternative to spinal fusion. It aligns and supports the spine while still...

  • This condition occurs when a lumbar vertebra slips out of place. It slides forward, distorting the shape of your spine. This may compress the nerves in the spinal canal. The nerves that exit the foramen (open spaces on the sides of your vertebrae) may also be compressed. These compressed nerves...

  • This condition is a degeneration of the spine that can affect the spine at any level, resulting in pain and discomfort that can grow worse over time.

  • St. Patrick’s Day is almost here! Shamrocks, leprechauns, pots of gold, and of course, green beer are all in season as the luck of the Irish sweeps across St. Louis. There are all sorts of legends and interesting tidbits about St. Patrick that may surprise you.

  • A stellate ganglion nerve block is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your neck. This helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to the nerves. Treatment may require a series of injections.

  • Stress fractures are small cracks that can occur in a bone because of overuse or activities that place high stress on the structures of the foot and ankle.

  • This surgery treats subacromial impingement. That's a pain you feel when you raise your arm. It happens when tendons in your shoulder press and rub against a part of your shoulder blade called the "acromion." This surgery is commonly done with the help of a special camera called an "arthroscope...

  • This injection goes into your shoulder. It can help reduce your shoulder pain. We use it to treat many conditions. It's used for adhesive capsulitis, rotator cuff tendinosis and impingement syndrome.

  • This surgical procedure is used to help relieve pain in the joint beneath the ankle joint and correct deformities in the hindfoot caused by injury, arthritis, or genetic defect. The procedure fuses the calcaneus (the heel bone) to the talus, the bone that connects the foot to the ankle.

  • This procedure is designed to limit hyperpronation, an excessive range of motion of the subtalar joint typically caused by hereditary underdevelopment of the talus or the calcaneus. Hyperpronation can allow the foot to collapse inward and downward. During this procedure, a small device is...

  • This condition is a break in the femur at the knee joint. The fracture can range from a small crack to a full break that allows part of the bone to separate. This injury can involve the cartilage on the base of the femur in the knee joint, and may increase the risk of developing knee arthritis...

  • This outpatient procedure is used to treat pain and discomfort from arthritis, bursitis or impingement of the suprascapular nerve in the shoulder joint. The suprascapular nerve is a major motor nerve that serves the muscles of the shoulder.

  • This is a pain or weakness from an irritated nerve in your shoulder. It's called the "suprascapular" nerve. It travels from the neck down through your shoulder.

  • This surgical procedure is used to repair a ruptured Achilles tendon, the large tendon that travels down the back of the ankle. This procedure will help the tendon heal properly, restoring function to the foot and ankle.

  • This procedure is used to remove excess bone growth and reshape the hip joint to allow for proper joint movement.

  • This condition is a result of tendon imbalance in the finger or thumb. In the finger, it causes a characteristic deformity in which the middle finger joint (called the PIP joint) hyperextends, and the fingertip joint (called the DIP joint) bends downward. When viewed from the side, the finger...

  • This condition is a common congenital anomaly of the hand. It occurs when two or more fingers are connected together by skin or tissue. The bones of the fingers may also be fused.

  • This procedure is used to correct a fracture of the talus, one of the three main bones that form the ankle joint. During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bone with hardware to allow the bone to heal properly.

  • This procedure, performed under general anesthesia, is used to repair a ruptured or severed tendon in the finger or thumb.

  • This procedure is used to reroute a tendon from beneath a flexible hammertoe to a new path along the top of the toe. Instead of pulling the toe into a bend, the tendon becomes a corrective force that helps straighten the toe.

  • This outpatient procedure is an injection performed to relieve pain in the upper back.

  • This is a label given to a group of disorders. In these disorders, nerves or blood vessels are compressed in the space between your collarbone and the underlying rib. This space is called the "thoracic outlet."

  • Throwing overhand again and again puts a lot of stress on your elbow. It can lead to injury. Young athletes, in particular, are at risk. Some play sports all year without learning how to throw properly. And, their bones are still growing. Let's look at how the elbow can be damaged.

  • This condition, also called skier's thumb, is an acute sprain or tear of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) on the ulnar side of the metacarpal-phalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb. A related condition, called gamekeeper's thumb, is a chronic injury that develops over time from repeated...

  • This condition is a break in the shin bone, called the tibia. A tibial fracture can occur anywhere along the bone, and can range from small cracks to a full break that allows the bone to separate.

  • This surgical procedure is used in cases where osteoarthritis has affected only one side of the knee joint. The tibia is cut and realigned so that pressure is shifted from the damaged side of the knee joint to the healthier side.

  • This surgical procedure is used in cases where osteoarthritis has affected only one side of the knee joint. The tibia is cut and realigned so that pressure is shifted from the damaged side of the knee joint to the healthier side.

  • This condition is a fracture at the top of the tibia, also called the shin bone. This fracture usually involves both bone and cartilage, so there is a high risk of developing arthritis from injury to the cartilage cells.

  • This procedure, also called bone realignment, is designed to improve the movement of the patella (the kneecap) to correct patellar tracking disorder. The procedure usually requires hospitalization and general anesthesia.

  • This technique is used to stabilize an ankle after injury. It can be used to repair a high ankle sprain, which damages the soft tissue structures between the tibia and fibula and causes these bones to separate. It can also be used to stabilize a fracture of the fibula. The TightRope system...

  • The hip is a true ball-in-socket joint with a wide range of motion which allows us to walk, run, jump, squat, and climb stairs, among other activities. Your hips bear your entire body weight and are in almost constant use. Because the hips are so fundamental to mobility, they are prone to injury...

  • TLIF is generally used to treat back or leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. The surgeon will stabilize the spine by fusing vertebrae together with bone graft material.

  • This surgical procedure is performed to remove portions of the ankle that are diseased or severely injured and to implant a device that will help manage pain and restore mobility to the ankle.

  • This surgical procedure is performed to remove portions of the ankle that are diseased or severely injured and to implant a device that will help manage pain and restore mobility to the ankle.

  • This surgical procedure is performed to remove portions of the ankle that are diseased or severely injured and to implant a device that will help manage pain and restore mobility to the ankle.

  • Total ankle replacement is a surgical procedure used to alleviate symptoms caused by ankle arthritis. During total ankle arthroplasty, or replacement, a surgeon removes any damaged portions of the ankle bones and replaces the arthritic joint with...

  • One goal of this procedure is to relieve the pain caused by pinched nerves or discogenic pain in the lumbar spine by replacing a diseased or damaged disc with specialized metal and polyethylene implants.

  • This surgical procedure replaces a damaged or diseased disc in the cervical spine with an artificial disc that restores the natural alignment of the spine. Unlike fusion surgery, which causes the vertebrae above and below the problem disc to grow together into a single bone, the artificial disc...

  • During this procedure, your damaged hip joint is replaced with implants that recreate the ball and socket of a healthy hip. This can reduce pain and restore your hip function.

  • During this procedure, your damaged hip joint is replaced with implants that recreate the ball and socket of a healthy hip. This can reduce pain and restore your hip function.

  • This surgery replaces diseased and damaged portions of the hip with implants designed to restore function to the hip joint.

  • During this procedure, your damaged hip joint is replaced with implants that recreate the ball and socket of a healthy hip. This can reduce pain and restore your hip function.

  • During this procedure, your damaged hip joint is replaced with implants that recreate the ball and socket of a healthy hip. This can reduce pain and restore your hip function.

  • This surgery replaces diseased and damaged portions of the hip with implants designed to restore function to the hip joint.

  • This surgery replaces diseased and damaged portions of the hip with implants designed to restore function to the hip joint. The surgeon uses an incision on the anterolateral part of the hip, instead of a more traditional incision on the side or back of the joint.

  • This surgery replaces diseased and damaged portions of the hip with implants designed to restore function to the hip joint. The surgeon uses an incision on the anterolateral part of the hip, instead of a more traditional incision on the side or back of the joint.

  • This procedure uses two small incisions to replace the diseased and damaged portion of the hip joint with implants. As a result, patients feel less pain and recover more quickly compared to patients who undergo traditional hip replacement surgery. While this procedure uses specialized surgical...

  • This surgery replaces diseased and damaged portions of the hip with implants designed to restore function to the hip joint.

  • This surgery replaces diseased and damaged portions of the hip with implants designed to restore function to the hip joint.

  • This procedure restores function to a severely damaged knee. Most commonly, it is used to repair a knee that has been damaged by arthritis. During the procedure, the surgeon replaces the damaged portions of the knee with artificial parts. These parts consist of a metal femoral component, a metal...

  • This procedure replaces degenerated cartilage in the knee joint with implants to restore function and eliminate pain. The surgeon plans and performs the surgery with the aid of robotic instruments and a computer guidance system.

  • Total knee surgery removes the damaged and painful areas of the femur (the thigh bone) and tibia (the lower leg bone). These areas are then replaced with specially-designed metal and polyethylene plastic parts.

  • This surgical procedure removes the damaged and painful areas of the femur and tibia inside the knee joint. These areas are then replaced with specially-designed metal and polyethylene plastic parts.

  • Total knee surgery removes the damaged and painful areas of the femur (the thigh bone) and tibia (the lower leg bone). These areas are replaced with specially-designed metal and polyethylene plastic parts.

  • This surgery replaces the damaged or diseased head of the humerus (also called the ball) and cartilage from the shoulder joint with a metal and plastic joint.

  • This is a sudden loss of bone density in the head of the femur. That's the ball that fits into the socket of your pelvis to form the hip joint. With transient osteoporosis, the femur's head weakens and your hip begins to hurt.

  • This condition is a degenerative or traumatic tear of one or more parts of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), which stabilizes the ulna. The TFCC is composed of a group of ligaments that form connections between the radius, ulna and the carpal bones of the hand. At the center of these...

  • This is an inflammation of a tendon at the back of your elbow. It's called the "triceps" tendon. It anchors your upper arm's triceps muscle to the ulna (one of the bones of your forearm).

  • This common condition, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis, is a narrowing of a portion of the tendon sheath in the finger or thumb that interferes with normal finger movement. This condition most commonly affects the ring finger, but can affect any digit. It is more common in middle-aged...

  • During this minimally-invasive procedure, the surgeon opens a narrowed tendon pulley at the base of a finger or thumb affected by trigger digit. Opening the pulley prevents the nodule from catching, allowing the the affected digit to flex and extend normally with no triggering or pain.

  • This surgical procedure is used to help relieve pain in the ankle joint and correct deformities in the hindfoot caused by injury, arthritis, or genetic defect. The procedure fuses the three main joints in the hindfoot that allow side-to-side movement - the calcaneo-cuboid, talonavicular, and...

  • This outpatient procedure, performed under general or regional anesthesia, repositions the ulnar nerve to prevent it from sliding against or becoming pinched by the medial epicondyle (the bony bump on the inner side of the elbow). Ulnar nerve transposition is used to treat cubital tunnel...

  • This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with hip and lower abdominal pain. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid around the ilioinguinal nerve with maximum accuracy.

  • This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with arthritis of the knee. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid with maximum accuracy.

  • This non-operative, outpatient procedure is designed to provide relief for patients with pain in the shoulder from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and adhesive capsulitis. The technique allows the physician to inject an inflammation-reducing steroid with maximum accuracy...

  • Unlike total knee replacement surgery, this less-invasive procedure replaces only the damaged or arthritic parts of the knee. The Encore Medical EPIK® unicompartmental knee procedure uses specially-designed metal and plastic implants.

  • Unlike total knee replacement surgery, this less-invasive procedure replaces only the damaged or arthritic parts of the knee.

  • The UniSpacer procedure is designed to relieve joint pain without removing healthy bone, delaying the need for a total knee replacement operation.

  • Unlike total knee replacement surgery, this less-invasive procedure replaces only the damaged or arthritic parts of the knee.

  • Unlike total knee replacement surgery, this less invasive procedure replaces only the damaged or arthritic parts of the knee.

  • This minimally-invasive, outpatient procedure is used to treat a compression fracture of the vertebra, an injury that commonly results from osteoporosis. This technique can restore the height of the vertebra and stabilize the fracture, providing rapid pain relief.

  • This surgical procedure replaces a severely diseased or damaged vertebra with a device designed to restore the spine's proper height and alignment. The patient's pain is relieved by eliminating pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots in the thoracic or lumbar spine.

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is an injection of bone cement into a vertebra. It stabilizes a compression fracture of the spine. One or more vertebrae may need to be treated.

  • This is an injection of medicine into the knee joint. It lubricates your knee so the bones can glide smoothly. It can help lessen the pain of arthritis.

  • This condition is a stretching or tearing of the volar plate, which can allow the finger to hyperextend and can interfere with normal hand function. The volar plate is a strong ligamentous structure on the underside of the finger at the point where the proximal and middle phalanx bones meet,...

  • This procedure relieves the symptoms of claw toe, persistent metatarsalgia, metatarsal phalangeal (MTP) joint synovitis or MTP subluxation by shortening the end of the metatarsal at the base of the affected toe. This provides room for the toe to relax and return to its normal position.

  • Have you ever seen a football player take a blow to the hip and the player immediately uses both hands to press on his hip? The team doctors rush out and help the player limp to the sidelines. A few minutes later the sideline reporter gives the report that the player sustained a ‘hip pointer’....

  • The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports that over 600,000 knee replacements are performed in the U.S. each year. (AAOS) While partial knee replacements and total knee replacements may seem near-identical, the comparison is more ‘apples to oranges’. There are three main...

  • When you hear you need surgery, it’s natural to experience fear and curiosity as some of the first emotions. You may find yourself grappling with questions like:

  • Lower back pain is a common problem that severely impacts the quality of your life. It can limit your ability to be active. It can cause you to miss work. Many different causes may lead to pain in your lower back.

  • Neck pain is a common problem that severely impacts the quality of your life. It can limit your ability to be active. It can cause you to miss work. Many different causes may lead to pain in your neck.

  • This is a common neck injury. It happens when your neck jerks back and forth quickly and violently. Your spine bends past its normal range of motion. This can injure the vertebrae of your cervical spine. It can damage the supporting ligaments and muscles in your neck.

  • This is a problem of the scapula bone. That's your "shoulder blade." With this condition, you have a shoulder blade that sticks out instead of lying flat. It lifts away from your back, and it doesn't look like your other shoulder blade.

  • This procedure is used to remove the problem portion of an ingrown toenail and to prevent the ingrown toenail from recurring. This procedure is performed under local anesthetic, and takes only a few minutes to perform.

  • This minimally invasive outpatient procedure allows the surgeon to evaluate and treat injuries and disorders of the ligaments, cartilage, and bones of the wrist. The surgeon uses a small camera, called an arthroscope, and tiny instruments which are inserted through small incisions in the wrist...

  • This surgical procedure relieves pain and corrects deformities of the wrist caused by injury, trauma, arthritis, or genetic defect. The procedure fuses the radius, the carpal and metacarpal bones.

  • When your wrist is bent too far, this can injure bands of tissue called "ligaments." Ligaments connect the bones of your hand to each other. They also connect the bones of your hand to the bones of your forearm.

  • Unlike traditional back surgery, XLIF® is performed through the patient's side. By entering this way, major muscles of the back are avoided. This minimally-invasive procedure is generally used to treat leg or back pain caused by degenerative disc disease. It can be performed on an outpatient...

  • This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a small tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. The surgery is performed under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.

  • This technique is used to stabilize an ankle after injury. It can be used to repair a high ankle sprain, which damages the soft tissue structures between the tibia and fibula and causes these bones to separate. It can also be used to stabilize a fracture of the fibula. The ZipTight system...